Web-hosting-glossary-q-r

Jul '07
24

Web-hosting-glossary-q-r

Posted by on July 24 2007 | 0 Comments
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RAID

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks. RAID is used for storing the same data in different locations on multiple hard disks. This array has better speed along with fault tolerance.

There are at least nine types of RAID plus a non-redundant array (RAID-0):
Level 0 uses data striping but no redundancy of data. Does not provide fault tolerance, but offers best performance.

Level 1 implements data mirroring. It consists of two drives that duplicate the storage of data either through software or hardware. Provides faster read performance in a multi-user system.
Level 2 – not used in practice. Data is split at bit level at written to multiple drives.
Level 3 – This is best for single-user systems with long record applications. It requires at least 3 drives. Data block is striped at byte level across drives and error correction codes is recorder on another drive.
Level 4 – Similar to Level 3 but provides faster performance as it uses blocks for striping.
Level 5 – Similar to Level 4 but improves performance. Striping of parity info data across multiple drives.
Level 6 – Similar to Level 5 but uses second parity scheme for better fault tolerance.
Level 7 – Proprietary RAID design by Storage Computer Corporation. Faster than other levels because it uses multiple levels of cache and asynchronous I/O transfers.

In addition multiple RAID levels can be combined to improve performance or reliability. The benefits of the RAID system are noticeable while storing large amounts of data. Many Web hosting and Internet Service Providers use RAID to store data for their clients.

Raw Logs

Raw Logs is another name for a server’s log files. Raw log files are important because you may require some in-depth information than the one you get from your host’s default log analyzer. You can get informations related to the user’s IP, date and time of the access, kind of request, which document was requested, bytes transferred, HTTP status code, referrer and user agent info. With the raw logs, you can take your data and use it with other specialty log analyzers for more advanced analysis.

Root Server

Root Server is a machine with all the softwares and data required to locate name servers that contain authoritative data from the very top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy like com, net, uk, etc. In fact, root servers are name servers and technical specifications has limited the number of root servers to 13. These machines are currently located around the world.

Resolution (domain name)

Domain name resolution is the task of converting an Internet address or domain names into their corresponding IP address or physical location.
Register (Domain Name)
As every domain is unique, there are different registries to assign domains to individuals and organizations. When ever a domain is registered with the proper registry, that domain gets assigned and no one else can use it. There are some registration and renewal fees associated with the right to use a domain.

Registrant (Domain Name)

A domain name registrant signifies the entity, organization or individual that has the right to use a particular domain name.

Registrar (Domain Name)

Some registries don’t provide the facility for end users to register domains with them directly. They might require end users to purchase the domain through an Internet service provider that actually acts as the registrar.

Registry (Domain Name)

A registry means an organization that is responsible for assigning domain names for the TLD that they manage. It is a registry’s task to update the global DNS tables that all nameservers use to resolve domain names.

S/MIME

S/MIME which stands for Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is a secure method of sending e-mail messages. It is a standard way for public key encryption and signing of e-mails that are encapsulated in MIME. It uses the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman encryption system. Latest versions of Web browsers from Microsoft and Netscape include S/MIME.

Scripting Language

Scripting language is a high-level programming language in which programs are series of commands that are interpreted by another program at runtime and then executed one by one. When, the scripting language is inserted into a Web page, it control various elements of the page, like the user interface, styles and HTML markup. JavaScript, ASP, JSP, PHP, Perl, Tcl and Python are examples of scripting languages.

Server

Server is a networked computer that takes care of client requests for Web pages. Server houses informations related to a particular web site and manages and shares network resources, so that the site can be accessed on the world wide web. When users connect to a server, they can access programs, files, and other information from the server.

Service Provider

Service provider is a company that provides Internet services to personal users or business. access to the Internet. A service provider charge a set fee for their service.

Session

Session means the total amount of data exchange that takes place between two parties, starting when the connection is established and ending when connection terminates.

Shopping Cart

Shopping Cart is a software program that enables a buyer to select products while browsing through an on-line shopping catalog, modify their choices, calculate prices, review their choices, and order them. Payment for the selected goods can be made after using the shopping cart. Many hosts with e-commerce plans offer pre-installed shopping carts, but you can always get a shopping cart of your choice instead.

SMTP

SMTP which stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a standard Internet protocol used for sending e-mails between servers via Internet. Basically, SMTP is a set of commands that authenticate and direct the transfer of e-mails and it also specifies how two mail systems interact with each other and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer e-mail.

Snail Mail

Snail mail is a term used to describe the normal postal mail, where an actual physical letter or package is delivered by the Post Office. This term was invented after the use of e-mail became more popular. It points out the relative slowness of traditional mail.

SNMP

SNMP which stands for Simple Network Management Protocol is a widely used network monitoring and control protocol. It is used for exchanging management related information between network devices and also to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance and security. SNMP network management is based on the client and server model.

Spam

Spam means unsolicited, irrelevant, unwanted or inappropriate email that are sent indiscriminately in mass quantities to multiple recipients, mostly for commercial advertising purpose. Spam is the misuse of mailing list and is considered one of the most notorious violations of Internet etiquette.

SQL

SQL is an acronym for Structured Query Language. It is ANSI internationally accepted standard interactive and programming language used for getting and modifying information in a relational database. Apart from covering query, it also defines data, manipulation, security, and some aspects of referential and entity integrity.

SSH

SSH which stands for Secure Shell is a Unix based command interface and protocol use for safe communication with another computer. All data sent via an SSH connection is encrypted, so that no third party can have an access to the data. SSH programs provide strong authentication and encrypted communications.

SSI

SSI which stands for Server side includes is a type of HTML comment that instructs the Web server to include some dynamic information in a Web page before it is sent to a client. Such dynamic information can be related to current data, an opinion poll, etc. Mostly, SSI pages have .shtml extension to reduce the load on servers.

SSL

SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol that provides encryption for commercial transactions of data, like credit card numbers, that need protection while traveling via the Internet. It handles and protect confidential information for e-commerce transaction. SSL must be certified from a Certificate Authority before use. SSL is developed by Netscape Communications Corporation and it usually begins with ‘https’.

Static (or dedicated) IP

Static (or dedicated) IP means a site has a unique and unchanging IP address. The IP address is not shared with any other site.

Streaming

Streaming is used to describe the technology with the help of which it is possible to play multimedia files in real time as it is downloaded over the Internet. Streaming requires a powerful computer and fast connection.

Subdomain

In the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy, a subdomain is a subdivision of a larger domain name. In a  A DNS hierarchy, there is the root-level domain at the top, underneath which are the top-level domains, followed by second-level domains and finally subdomains. Subdomain is used to divide a web site into different sections.

Shared Hosting

Shared hosting is the most common and popular form of hosting and the least expensive. In a shared hosting, data of a website is stored on a hard drive along with a number of other web sites. A client gets a limited space allotment and data transfer. One of the drawback of shared hosting is that it can’t handle large amounts of storage or traffic.

Shared IP

Shared IP signifies an IP address that is shared by multiple websites.

Site Monitoring

Site monitoring refers to a service that regularly checks a web site and in case of a problem alerts the administrator about it.

Statistics

Statistics are used to find out who is visiting a particular web site, what pages are viewed, which browsers are being used and more. Hosting companies run software on their web servers to collect the informations and compile it in a user-friendly and easy to read format.

Shell Account

A shell account is a personal account that gives access to a UNIX-based host computer. With a shell account, a user can log into a remote server and enter UNIX commands to access files, compile binaries, run programs  in text mode.

Security Certificate

Security certificate means a chunk of information, often stored as a text file, that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. It contains data about who it belongs to, who issued it, a unique serial number, unique identification, valid dates and even an encrypted ‘fingerprint’ that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate.

T1

T1 is a dedicated data transfer system that transfers digital signals at a speed of 1.544 megabits per socond. A T1 line consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports 64 kilobits per second, that can be configured for voice or data transmission. Most small to mid-sized business use T1 lines for faster Internet connections.

T3

T3 is a dedicated data transmission line capable of transferring data at a speed of 44.746 megabits per second.T3 lines are used by ISPs to connect to the Internet backbone. A T3 line is  30 times faster than a T1 line.

Tcl

Tcl is the short form for Tool Command Language. It is a powerful interpreted script language   developed by John Ousterhout. It is used for prototyping applications, string-manipulation, testing and integration of multiple components as well as for developing CGI scripts.

Terminal Server

Terminal server is a special purpose computer or controller that has got places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most of the terminal servers offer PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.

Traffic

Traffic means the amount of data packets being transmitted over a network. Usually, it is measured in megabytes (MB). For billing purposes, traffic is normally quoted in MB per month. Traffic is one of the variables by which the web hosting companies charge their customers.

Traceroute

Traceroute is a TCP/IP utility that records the route via the Internet between one computer and a specified destination computer. It also calculates and displays the amount of time each hop took. It helps to determine whether the communication between the two computers are successful or not and also the contribution of each computers. It is very useful for network debugging.

TLD

TLD which stands for Top Level Domain is the last part of the domain name. There are three types of TLDs. The most common type is the Generic or Global TLDs which include .com, .net, .org, .mil, .int and .edu. The TLD for name.com is “com”. TLD’s are assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

Terabyte (TB)

A terabyte is a unit of measurement that is used to determine the data storage capacity of a computer. One terabyte is equal to 1,024 gigabytes. The prefix "tera" comes from the Greek word meaning "monster."

Telnet

Telnet is a character based protocol used for logging onto remote computer systems. Only authorized users can log on to a remote computer. Once you are logged into the remote system, you can download files, engage in conferencing, and perform the same commands as if you were directly connected by computer One can use the Telnet application to run commands and programs on a remote computer.

TCP

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and it is the most important of the network protocols used in the Internet. TCP is used to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet.

TCP/IP

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is the standard method of communication that the Internet uses to function. TCP/IP software is necessary to have on your computer to be on the Internet. This software is included with all operating systems like Unix, Windows and the Mac OS.

 

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